I'm waking up |
How a poet during his lifetime had no place in his homeland
A reading of the poem
«Jewish Cemetery»
caused an uproar
From the age of 14 he learned different professions: milling machine operator, lighthouse keeper, stoker. He wanted to become a doctor, even to get a job in the morgue, but he did not like this profession. The poet finished his secondary education in a school for working-class youth.
At the age of 17, Brodsky went to work on a geological expedition to Siberia, then to Yakutia. During this period he studied self-education, read a lot of poetry, philosophical and religious literature.
Joseph Brodsky was born on May 24, 1940 in Leningrad in a Jewish family.
He wrote his first poems at the age of 18, and at the age of 20 he first publicly recited the poem «Jewish Cemetery» at a poets' tournament at the Leningrad Palace of Culture
From this period, Brodsky got on the KGB's notice
At the age of 23, the poet was detained by the KGB in the case of «Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda», but was released two days later. After his arrest, Joseph was followed.
His poems described the USSR too dark and were against censorship.
Soon a newspaper article was published that slandered Brodsky
The poet was suddenly awakened at night, dipped in cold water, and then wrapped in a sheet and placed Brodsky next to the battery. The heat made the cloth very dry and stretched the body, which led to pain.
Joseph was accused of promoting pessimistic poems. He was sent to a forensic psychiatric examination, where he was tortured.
On february 14, 1964, Brodsky was arrested for the second time on charges of social parasitism
He was convicted under Article 70 of the Criminal Code «Anti-Soviet agitation and propaganda» for social parasitism and human rights activities. The poet was kept in the well-known Kresty prison while awaiting sentencing.
The verdict was 5 years of exile to a remote area
Brodsky was exiled to the village of Norinskaya in the Arkhangelsk region
He continued his self-education and wrote poetry. During his vacations Joseph traveled to Leningrad to have his works published in emigrant publications. Thanks to friends and influential people in the USSR, the court reduced the term in exile to 3.5 years.
In the fall of 1965, at the age of 25, Brodsky returned to Leningrad
He tried to publish his works, but it was unsuccessful because of the KGB's interference. In two years, Brodsky managed to publish only four poems in is home country.
Outside the USSR, on the contrary, Brodsky was gaining fame. His works were published with and without translation, he was invited to interviews and work as a university professor. But the Soviet authorities forbade him to leave the country.
The great poet
In May 1972, Brodsky was advised to leave the country because of his anti-Soviet activities, threatening to be taken to a psychiatric clinic
After Brodsky was revoked the Soviet citizenship, he left Leningrad on an «Israeli visa» and flew to Vienna
In July 1972, Brodsky accepted
an invitation to teach at the University of Michigan in the USA.
The poet's books were successfully published in America, and in 1977 Brodsky obtain American citizenship.
On June 4, 1972, Joseph Brodsky permanently left his homeland, taking a typewriter, two bottles of vodka for a friend, and John Donne's book of poems.
Move the items into the suitcase
After Brodsky was revoked the Soviet citizenship, he left Leningrad on an «Israeli visa» and flew to Vienna
In July 1972, Brodsky accepted
an invitation to teach at the University of Michigan in the USA.
In July 1972, Brodsky accepted
an invitation to teach atthe University of Michigan in the USA.
In 1987, the poet was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
Brodsky's Nobel speech:
«For an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity.»
significance, and who went in this preference rather far –
has preferred his private condition to any role of social
far from his motherland to say the least, for it is better
to be a total failure in democracy than a martyr or the crème
in tyranny – for such a person to find himself all of a sudden
on this rostrum is a somewhat uncomfortable and trying experience.
This sensation is aggravated not so much by the thought of those
bypassed by this honor...»
who stood here before me as by the memory of those who have been
Brodsky's entire speech is 7 minutes long
«For someone rather private, for someone who all his life
«For someone rather private, for someone who all his life has preferred his private condition to any role of social significance, and who went in this preference...»
Brodsky met his first love in 1962
She was the artist Marianna Basmanova.
There was no official marriage because
the girl's parents didn't like Brodsky.
In 1967, the couple had
a son Andrei.
Marianna and her son did not go abroad to Joseph and stayed in Leningrad. Andrei has his mother's surname.
In 1972 Brodsky had an affair with a ballerina
In 1972, Marianne and Joseph had a daughter Anastasia.
Marianna Kuznetsova was a ballerina
in the Kirov Theater corps de ballet.
Very little is known about her relationship with Brodsky.
In 1990, Brodsky married
to Maria Sozzani
Maria is an Italian who was fond of Russian literature. So she came to listen to the poet's performance. Brodsky was 50 at that time, the girl was 30 years younger.
In 1993 they had a daughter Anna.
Joseph Brodsky died on January 28, 1996 in New York at the age of 55 from sudden cardiac arrest.
What can I say about life?
That it's been long.
It's only with grief that I feel
in solidarity.
And while my |
Excursions about the life of Joseph Brodsky
The museum is Brodsky's apartment,
where he lived with his parents. The museum is located in St. Petersburg.
House-museum in the village of Norinskaya, where Brodsky lived in exile.
Daria May
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